Automotive Industry as an engine of Economic Growth in Poland
5 December 2017
Presentation on EU regulation, deployment of 5G discussion on automotive industry in Poland as an engine of economic growth.… Together with Elżbieta Łukacijewska, Paweł Wideł and Lewiatan.
The automotive industry is crucial for Europe’s prosperity. The sector provides jobs for 12 million people and accounts for 4% of the EU’s GDP. The EU is among the world’s biggest producers of motor vehicles and the sector represents the largest private investor in research and development (R&D). Around 12 million people work in the EU automotive sector. Manufacturing accounts for 3 million jobs, sales and maintenance for 4.3 million, and transport for 4.8 milion.
With the global market for automated vehicles expected to reach 44 million by 2030, it is vital that Europe’s connectivity infrastructure is ready for handling millions of data points per second from these cars. Safety is paramount for connected and automated driving, which means that the highest levels of coverage, reliability and resilience are required from mobile networks. Recognising these challenges, the European automotive and telecom sectors joined forces in September 2016 by launching an ‘EU Industry Dialogue on automated and connected driving’ to identify, and jointly overcome, the remaining barriers. However, these issues cannot be addressed by the industries alone, there is also clear need for supportive public policies.
The European sectors have defined three key areas in which they pro-actively want to cooperate. These are:
- Connectivity: Firstly, automated driving will require upgraded communication systems that provide higher performance levels in terms of latency, throughput and reliability of the network. Europe needs to support private investment by all operators in order to foster the deployment of the necessary enhanced fixed and mobile infrastructure. For example, through ensuring a technology neutral regulatory framework, or through public funding, where investment is not feasible on a commercial basis
- Standardisation: Secondly, standardisation is crucial for a timely and cost efficient market development of connected and automated driving. To that end, the two industries have agreed to map all relevant standardisation activities that are being undertaken, either by the auto industry or by the telecom industry, and to jointly determine priorities
- Security: Thirdly, to obtain customer trust in connected and automated driving, it is critical to ensure that all data transmission to and from vehicles, as well as all data processing that is required, occurs in a secure manner. Both sectors are already involved in industry-led initiatives in this field, but have now agreed to use this dialogue to strengthen their cooperation.
A number of initiatives around standardisation are proceeding, addressing the technical and infrastructure hurdles. The family of Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE) standards are established to support a reliable V2V and V2X wireless communication. The European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) is involved in the ITS system. European Commission is working to enable interoperability and launched the US/EU Standardizations Harmonization Working Group in 2014. In 2016, a 5G Automotive Association was formed by key players like Audi, BMW, Daimler, Huawei and Qualcomm. It focuses on technical and regulatory issues leveraging next generation mobile networks, and committed to push forward the commercial availability and global market penetration.
Declaration of Amsterdam – signed 14 April 2016 – Europe’s transport ministers, the European Commission and the European Automobile Manufacturers’ Association (ACEA) have reached an agreement on cooperation in the field of connected and automated driving. All parties agreed to work together to ensure a successful deployment of these smart technologies across Europe.
With the Declaration of Amsterdam on connected and automated driving, member states, the European Commission and private sector have agreed on joint goals and joint actions to facilitate the introduction of connected and automated driving on Europe’s roads. This should prevent a patchwork of rules and regulations arising within the EU, which would be an obstacle to both manufacturers and road users.
The Declaration of Amsterdam launched of a structural dialogue. The first High Level Meeting was held in the Netherlands in February 2017. There were representatives from 24 Member States, Norway and Switzerland, the European Commission and the automotive and telecom industries.
High Level Meeting have agreed on a working agenda and giving top priority to the following topics:
1) Data sharing – the aim is to realize this category of data sharing for large-scale deployment in these areas by 2019;
2) Large scale (cross border) testing focusing on the most promising use cases and sharing experiences on these tests; It is necessary to organize large-scale cross border testing of innovative connected and automated driving systems to further the technological advancement, demonstrate their performance, prove their positive impact on safety for all road users, and assess socio-economic impact; there is a need to develop a joint vision on the digital infrastructure needed to support connected and automated driving;
3) Coherence with V2X *(V2X is both: V2V vehicle to vehicle and V2I vehicle to infrastructure) communication technologies and necessary digital transport infrastructures;
4) Coherent international, European and national regulation. Member States agree to work together and keep each other informed on the development of national legislation affecting consistent EU-wide deployment of connected and automated driving focusing both on horizontal and vertical dimensions.
Autonomous driving levels 0 to 5: Understanding the differences.
– Fully autonomous vehicles which can drive without human intervention and operate door-to-door with full freedom of movement are expected to be available on the market by 2025-30;
– The biggest difference is that, starting at Level 3, the automated driving system becomes able to monitor the driving environment.
Level 0: This one is basic. The driver (human) controls it all: steering, brakes, throttle, power. It’s what you have been doing all along.
Level 1: This driver-assistance level means that most functions are still controlled by the driver, but a specific function (like steering or accelerating) can be done automatically by the car.
Level 2: In level 2, at least one driver assistance system of “both steering and acceleration/ deceleration using information about the driving environment” is automated, like cruise control and lane-centering. It means that the “driver is disengaged from physically operating the vehicle by having his or her hands off the steering wheel. The driver must still always be ready to take control of the vehicle, however.
Level 3: Drivers are still necessary in level 3 cars, but are able to completely shift “safety-critical functions” to the vehicle, under certain traffic or environmental conditions. It means that the driver is still present and will intervene if necessary, but is not required to monitor the situation in the same way it does for the previous levels.
Level 4: This is what is meant by “fully autonomous.” Level 4 vehicles are “designed to perform all safety-critical driving functions and monitor roadway conditions for an entire trip.” However, it’s important to note that this is limited to the “operational design domain (ODD)” of the vehicle—meaning it does not cover every driving scenario.
Level 5: This refers to a fully-autonomous system that expects the vehicle’s performance to equal that of a human driver, in every driving scenario—including extreme environments like dirt roads that are unlikely to be navigated by driverless vehicles in the near future.